The number we have is different from various perspective some combine two systems because they do the same function and others separate each individual system. Several individual systems in the body that have a function to operate independently but often integrated with other systems.
Here is a list with simple idea what main function is
1 Circulatory system: transport system
2 Digestive system: processing system
3 Excretory system: removal system
4 Urinary system: cleaning system
5 Endocrine system: regulating system
6 Integumentary System: external defence system
7 Immune system: internal defence system
8 lymphatic system: drainage system
9 Nervous System: detection system
10 Muscular system: movement system
11 Skeletal System: structure support system
12 Respiratory system: exchange system
13 Reproductive system: reproduction system
Anatomy is closely related to physiology. Anatomy is the study of the structure of body parts, but physiology focuses on how these parts work and relate to each other.
Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of normal humans or human tissues or organs.
The study of physiology traces its roots back to ancient India and Egypt.
“The physiology of today is the medicine of tomorrow.” Ernest H. Starling, Physiologist (1926)
“The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, in diet, and in the cause and prevention of disease.” Thomas Edison
Circulatory system transports the body vital nutrition to the cells also known as the cardiovascular system. The heart is the main engine or pump which keeps the traffic flowing around the body. This super highway with its amazing transport systems works in conjunction with the respiratory system as a valuable customer. Other systems in the body use this super highway of network to deliver thier services to the body. The blood is the transport trucks carrying the goods the body needs.The system of blood vessels in the human body measure about 60,000 miles (96,560 kilometers).
Respiratory system exchanges the air we breathe from fresh to the removal toxic gases. The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs which carry out this exchange of gases as we breathe. The mighty lungs breathe in between 2,100 and 2,400 gallons (8,000 and 9,000 liters) of air
The oxygen dissolves in blood, a small amount of oxygen is transported this way. Only 1.5 percent of oxygen in the blood is dissolved directly into the blood itself. Most oxygen, 98.5 percent, is bound to a protein called hemoglobin and carried to the tissues. Carbon dioxide can be transported through the blood via three methods. It is dissolved directly in the blood, bound to plasma proteins or hemoglobin, or converted into bicarbonate.
Digestive system is a food processing system called the gastrointestinal tract also called the GI tract or digestive tract. Your delicious food starts the journey in your mouth travels through your body where the food is processed or broken down to nutrients to a cellar level. The Gi tract is about 9.144 metres long(30 feet). The chemistry in your digestive system is important so the food you eat can be broken down into its different parts.
The saliva in the mouth is usually between 6.5 – 7.5. We swallow food it then upper portion of the stomach which has a pH between 4.0 – 6.5food is there about 30 – 60 minutes. Enters the lower stomach has hydrochloric acid a pH between 1.5 – 4.0. it is there between 1- 3 hours.Then it enters the duodenum (small intestine) where the pH changes to 7.0 – 8.5 there about 30- 60 minutes.This is where 90% of the absorption of nutrients is taken in by the body while the waste products are passed out through the colon (pH 4.0 – 7.0) The leftovers can stay here between 10 hours and several days
Excretory system the removal system regulate the chemical composition of body fluids by removing metabolic wastes and retaining the proper amounts of water, salts, and nutrients. Components of this system in vertebrates include the kidneys, liver, lungs, and skin.
The longest human poop ever recorded was an astounding 7.92 metres (26 feet) and was set in 1995 by a woman
Urinary system a cleaning system. The urinary system’s function is to filter blood and create urine as a waste by-product. The organs of the urinary system include the kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder and urethra.
The kidney and urinary systems help the body to eliminate liquid waste called urea, and to keep chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where it is removed along with water and other wastes in the form of urine.
Every 45 minutes, your whole blood supply passes through your urinary system. About 40 gallons of blood in women and 48 gallons of blood in men are filtered each day.
The colour of your urine show if you are drinking enough water; it is usually light yellow if you are drinking enough water and dark yellow if you are not.
Nervous System: detection system The human nervous system can be divided into two interacting subsystems: the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system is an extensive network of nerves connecting the CNS to the muscles and sensory structures
Sympathetic. The sympathetic division forms the body’s “fight or flight” response to stress, danger, excitement, exercise, emotions, and embarrassment. The sympathetic division increases respiration and heart rate, releases adrenaline and other stress hormones, and decreases digestion to cope with these situations.
Parasympathetic. The parasympathetic division forms the body’s “rest and digest” response when the body is relaxed, resting, or feeding. The parasympathetic works to undo the work of the sympathetic division after a stressful situation. Among other functions, the parasympathetic division works to decrease respiration and heart rate, increase digestion, and permit the elimination of wastes.
Immune system: internal defence system The immune system keeps a record of every microbe it has ever defeated, in types of white blood cells (B- and T-lymphocytes) known as memory cells. This means it can recognise and destroy the microbe quickly if it enters the body again, before it can multiply and make you feel sick.
lymphatic system: drainage system The lymphatic system helps protect us from infection and disease. It is part of the body’s immune system. The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. It is made up of a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymph tissues, lymph capillaries and a network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph and other substances throughout the body. The removal of excess fluids from body tissues. This process is crucial because water, proteins, and other substances are continuously leaking out of tiny blood capillaries into the surrounding body tissues. If the lymphatic system didn’t drain the excess fluid from the tissues, the lymph fluid would build up in the body’s tissues, and they would swell.
Skeletal System: structure support system primary functions include supporting the body, allowing motion, and protecting vital organs. There are 206 bones in the body which form more than 200 joints.
Each hand has 27 bones, and each foot has 26, which means that together the body’s two hands and two feet have 106 bones.
Your skeleton weighs about 12-15% of your body weight. If you’re 88.9 kg (14st)your skeleton will weigh around 12.7 Kg (2st)
There are four main types of cells within bones: Osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts and lining cells.
The smallest bone found in the human body is located in the middle ear.
Muscular system: movement system Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. The skeletal muscles are continually making fine adjustments that hold the body in stationary. Heat production, to maintain body temperature, is an important by-product of muscle Nearly 85 percent of the heat produced in the body is the result of muscle contraction.
The hardest working muscle in the body is the heart
Some of your busiest muscles are those controlling eye movements
The word muscle is derived from the Latin term musculus, meaning “little mouse”. This Latin term could be due to the shape of some muscles or because muscles contracting under the skin can look like a mouse moving under a rug.
It takes 17 muscles in the face for us to smile and 43 muscles to frown.